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Motricidade Online [17º Aniversário]

...Portal dos Professores e Profissionais de Educação Física e Desporto.

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Como o corpo docente e discente percebe as aulas de Educação Física mistas ou separadas por sexo

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Profa. Dra. ELAINE ROMERO

UNIVERSIDADE CASTELO BRANCO

Rio de Janeiro/RJ

Pesquisadora do CNPq

JANAÍNA AGUIAR

UNIVERSIDADE FEDERAL DO ESPÍRITO SANTO/Vitória/ES

Bolsista de Aperfeiçoamento do CNPq

 

 

1. INTRODUÇÃO

Esta investigação tem como principal objetivo analisar as concepções do corpo docente, nas escolas municipais e particulares de 1º e 2º grau do município de Vitória, Espírito Santo, acerca das aulas mistas ou separadas por sexo, nas atividades de Educação Física.

A sociedade brasileira sempre tentou mascarar questões relativas à sexualidade, principalmente durante a infância e a escola, como aparelho reprodutor ideológico não é diferente. Influenciada pela cultura regional, a escola possui toda uma história de repressão e segregação quanto aos sexos. O meio escolar, há muito tempo, opta por separar corpos, ficando desta forma em uma posição bastante cômoda, sem precisar enfrentar questionamentos ou situações consideradas "desconcertantes". Ainda hoje, a dicotomia corpo/mente ronda o meio educacional. Durante as aulas de outras disciplinas, os alunos de ambos os sexos permanecem juntos na sala de aula, porém, no desenvolvimento das aulas de Educação Física, na maioria quase que absoluta das vezes, são separados por sexo. Este fato denuncia a idéia de que, corpos precisam ser separados, mentes não. "(...) para a escola, o aluno só é corpo quando vai para o pátio de Educação Física" (FREIRE, 1994, p. 210).

Essa posição cômoda, trazida pelas aulas de Educação Física separadas por sexo, há pouco tempo começou a levantar questionamentos e a propiciar reflexões por parte do corpo docente das escolas, a respeito da eficácia dessa forma de trabalho, e hoje, se tem notícias de experiências bem sucedidas de aulas em que alunos de ambos os sexos participam juntos da prática de atividade física com aulas bem preparadas, longe de exaltar unicamente o rendimento físico. Contudo, em muitas escolas a orientação de separar as turmas por sexo para as aulas de Educação Física ainda persiste perpetuando uma prática sexista que desfavorece meninos e meninas em determinadas atividades físicas.

Com base nestas informações este estudo ficou circunscrito no propósito de analisar as concepções do corpo docente e discente, nas escolas municipais e particulares de 1º e 2º grau do município de Vitória, Espírito Santo, acerca de aulas mistas ou separadas por sexo, nas atividades de Educação Física.

PONTOS INVESTIGADOS

  • De onde parte a determinação pelo desenvolvimento das aulas de Educação Física mistas ou separadas por sexo e qual a participação do professor nesta escolha?
  • Quais as vantagens e desvantagens das aulas de Educação Física mistas ou separadas por sexo, para os professores de Educação Física?
  • Quais as vantagens e desvantagens das aulas de Educação Física mistas ou separadas por sexo, perante os alunos e diretores de escola?
  • De que forma as aulas de Educação Física mistas ou separadas por sexo contribuem ou agravam a questão do relacionamento entre meninos e meninas?

2. MATERIAL E MÉTODO

A pesquisa foi de natureza quanti-qualitativa, empregando-se a técnica de análise de conteúdo. Como sujeitos participaram 104 alunos cursando a quinta série do ensino fundamental, 6 professores de Educação Física e 3 diretores. Os participantes eram de ambos os sexos freqüentando e atuando em escolas públicas e particulares do município de Vitória/ES.

O Instrumento empregado foi um questionário com oito perguntas objetivas e discursivas caracterizadas por um roteiro diferenciado para os alunos e professores. As pesquisadoras aplicaram o questionário nas escolas.

3. RESULTADOS PRELIMINARES

Os dados encontram-se em fase de análise, o que não permite no momento detalhamento de resultados e conclusões definitivas. No entanto, seguem abaixo algumas das respostas coletadas na investigação a respeito do que os sujeitos pensam de bom ou ruim sobre as aulas de Educação Física mistas mistas ou separadas por sexo.

Para melhor compreensão dos dados a seguir utilizamos a convenção:

Mistas = M Separados por sexo = S

3.1- RESPOSTAS DOS ALUNOS (amostra):

-Suj. 1 (masc.) - (M): bom - "A gente olha as meninas a aula toda."

ruim - "Pois a gente divide a quadra e meio tempo"

- (S): bom - "Não divide o tempo com ninguém"

ruim - "Só homem em uma aula é ruim demais"

 

-Suj. 2 (masc.) - (M): bom - "Tudo".

ruim - "Nada".

- (S): bom - "Ninguém invade sua privacidade"

ruim - "Se perde o contato com amigos."

 

-Suj. 3 (masc.) - (M): bom - "Que podemos olhar as pernas delas"

ruim - "Temos que dividir o tempo de aula com elas"

- (S): bom - "Não temos que dividir o tempo de aula"

ruim: "Não podemos olhar as pernas delas."

 

-Suj. 4 (masc.) - (M): bom - "Que você não espera para jogar"

ruim - "As meninas têm pouca habilidade com a bola"

- (S): bom - "Podemos bater bola sem embolação."

ruim - "Temos que esperar o tempo delas acabar"

 

-Suj. 5 (fem.) - (M): bom - "Todos conversam com todos."

ruim - "Os meninos sabem jogar melhor"

- (S): bom - "Não tem meninos para dizer que sabem jogar melhor que a gente"

ruim - "Nada."

 

-Suj. 6 (fem.) - (M): bom - "Nada."

ruim - "É que os meninos têm mais direito que a gente e machuca a gente" (sic)

- (S): bom - "Nenhum menino implica com as meninas"

ruim - "Não tem nada."

 

-Suj. 7 (fem.) - (M): bom - "É que os meninos ficam nos olhando"

ruim - "É que não aceitam brincar com o que nós queremos"

- (S): bom - "É que nós conhecemos os meninos educados"

ruim - "É que eles não gostam de brincar de pular corda."

 

-Suj. 8 (fem.) - (M): bom - "Assim nós se sentimos um pouco mais fraternos"(sic)

ruim - "A agressividade em alguns jogos."

- (S): bom - "Liberdade nas aulas de ginástica."

ruim - "Não teria brincadeiras legais como futebol."

 

3.2 - RESPOSTAS DOS PROFESSORES DE EDUCAÇÃO FÍSICA:

-Suj. 1 (masc.) - (M): "Não vejo problemas. O relacionamento homem/mulher na sociedade é fato, não há como ser diferente em Educação Física."

- (S): "Aula de Educação Física com alunos do mesmo sexo teoricamente talvez fosse mais interessante, só que você acaba acomodando-se um pouco."

 

-Suj. 2 (fem.) - (M): "Maior respeito, mais integração, maior solidariedade entre meninos e meninas, ajuda das dificuldades, disciplina pior, maior dificuldade." (sic)

- (S): "Maior realização profissional, maior conscientização, quebra de preconceitos e conceitos pré-estabelecidos.

 

-Suj. 3 (fem.) - (M): "Não sou muito a favor principalmente com adolescentes, pois os interesses muitas vezes não são os mesmos. Exemplo: ginástica feminina, danças, etc. (principalmente o vocabulário do adolescente)."

- (S): "O relacionamento com a professora mais estreito. Como educadora viso muito a educação e a física (separadas). A disciplina do aluno é muito importante para até que ele se torne um bom atleta."

 

 

3.3 - RESPOSTAS DOS DIRETORES DE ESCOLA:

- Suj. 1 (fem.) - (M): "Trabalha a socialização melhor e quebra os tabus."

- (S): "Dificulta a organização da escola."

 

-Suj. 2 (masc.) - (M): "Bom, a parte financeira é mais rentável para a escola, ruim, falta tempo para o professor atender a todos os alunos."

- (S): "Bom, por atender a individualidade de cada turma."

 

4. - CONCLUSÕES PRELIMINARES

Em relação aos professores os dados até agora analisados permitem inferir que a maioria trabalha com turmas mistas e outras com aulas separadas por sexo. Todos eles aprovam e acham interessante trabalhar da forma como trabalham. Nenhum deles foi consultado ou participou do processo decisório da composição das turmas na escola.

As respostas dos diretores dão conta que estes são favoráveis às aulas mistas porque trabalha a socialização e quebra tabus, atendendo a individualidade de cada turma. Houve uma restrição quanto à separação das aulas porque entendeu o diretor que dificultaria a organização da escola.

Os alunos tiveram respostas diversificadas. Os meninos, na sua maioria, responderam que preferiam ter aulas separadas e a justificativa variou, sempre colocando os interesses masculinos prioritariamente como; melhor utilização do espaço físico da quadra, não dividir o tempo da aula, poder bater bola com mais tempo. As meninas, também em sua maioria, preferem as aulas de Educação Física separadas. Elas justificam que desta forma não têm meninos para dizer que jogam melhor que elas, que os meninos são muito brutos, e que sendo as aulas separadas elas têm maior liberdade.

REFERÊNCIAS BIBLIOGRÁFICAS

ABREU, Neíse Gaudêncio. Análise das percepções de docentes e discentes sobre turmas mistas e separadas por sexo nas aulas de educação física escolar. In ROMERO, Elaine (Org.) Corpo, mulher e sociedade. Campinas: Papirus, 1995, p. 157-76.

AZEVEDO, Tania M. C. de. A mulher e atividade desportiva; preconceitos e estereótipos. (análise de periódicos especializados em educação física. 1932-1987). Tese mestrado em educação. Universidade Federal Fluminense. Niterói, RJ, 1988.

DAOLIO, Jocimar. A construção cultural do corpo feminino ou o risco de transformar meninas em "antas". In: ROMERO, Elaine (Org.). Corpo, mulher e sociedade. Campinas: Papirus, 1995, p. 99-123.

FREIRE, João Batista. Educação de corpo inteiro. São Paulo: Scipione, 1994.

HAGUETTE, Teresa Maria Frota. Metodologias qualitativas na sociologia. 3 ed . Petrópolis: Vozes, 1992.

ROMERO, Elaine. Estereótipos masculinos e femininos em professores de educação física (Tese de doutorado). São Paulo, USP, IP,1990.

_________. A educação física a serviço da ideologia sexista. Revista Brasileira de Ciências do Esporte. Ijui, n. 3, v. 15, p. 226-234, jan. 1994.

SCOTT, Joan. Gênero: uma categoria útil de análise histórica. Revista Educação & Realidade. Porto Alegre, jun. 1995.

SEVERINO, Antônio Joaquim. Metodologia do trabalho científico. 16 ed. São Paulo: Cortez, 1990.

SOUZA, Eustáquia Salvadora de. Meninos à marcha! Meninas à sombra! (Tese de doutorado). Campinas SP, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, 1994.

_______. Gênero: uma categoria relacional e histórica. Apostila. IX COMBRACE, Vitória, 1995. (mimeo)

 

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